Very low calorie diets weight loss


Very Low Calorie Diet - A Rebelutionary Healthy Fat Loss


Blog Why Very Low Calorie Diets Are So Dangerous. Why Very Low Calorie Diets Are So Dangerous. Frustratingly, meal replacement programs seem to have become more and more popular in recent years, coinciding with the desire many people have to try living on a very low calorie diet. It’s a low calorie diet, and thus promises to shed the pounds faster than you can say, ‘slim fast’. Obviously, swapping your regular meals with these products can cut down the amount of calories and fat you take in, and they do help some people lose weight. There is no such thing as an easy low calorie diet. Some of these very low calorie diet programs provide as little as 800 calories per day. And before you take the risk, researchers have found after several months, people on a 400 calorie per day diet lose no more weight than those on the 800 calorie diet. If you have followed a very low calorie diet in the past you may have experienced a considerable amount of weight loss in the first couple of weeks. And, it appears that in the end you won’t lose any more weight after several months than someone who followed a low calorie diet for the same amount of time.


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What is a Very Low Calorie Diet or a VLCD


A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is a rapid weight loss program where calories are severely restricted.  The diets are often used to help obese patients achieve significant, short-term weight loss as part of a comprehensive weight loss program. VLCDs are designed to produce rapid weight loss at the beginning of a weight loss program. The bars and shakes used in VLCDs are not the same as diet bars and shakes that you can purchase in the grocery store. VLC diets are not normally used for patients with a BMI between 27 and 30 unless they have medical conditions related to their weight. VLC diets are not usually prescribed for children or teens. Weight Loss on a Very Low-Calorie Diet. The average weight loss for a 12-week VLCD is about 44 pounds. They are even more common during rapid weight loss. Combining a VLC diet with behavior therapy, exercise and follow-up treatment may prevent weight regain.


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Extreme diets : Life on 800 calories a day


At the time of her death, Clowe was following a plan called Lighter Life, a very low-calorie diet designed to help obese and severely obese patients lose weight. "Samantha came to Lighter Life with a BMI of 37, weighing more than 17 stone [238 pounds]," says a spokesperson for the company. Very low-calorie diets have been used to help obese and severely obese patients lose weight for more than two decades. We are taking on full responsibility for [the patient's] nutrition." "For the most part I wasn't hungry," says Heitman. Hernried has lectured on very low-calorie diets for more than a decade and supervises a VLCD program in his California clinic. He believes every low-calorie program must have regular involvement from a medical professional and incorporate lifestyle changes, exercise, and enough calories in order to be effective and safe for the patient. "Absolutely these diets must be done under the care of a doctor," says CNNHealth.com's diet and fitness expert, Dr. Heitman says he is thankful for the medical supervision he received while on the diet. "[It's] the follow-through with learning to eat right and regularly exercising," says Heitman.


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Very Low - calorie Diets


A VLCD may be used for a short time to promote quick weight loss among some people who are considered to be obese. The diet requires close care from your doctor and is usually combined with other ways to lose weight (see How is obesity treated? This fact sheet will tell you more about the risks and benefits of this type of diet. If you need to lose weight, talk to your health care provider about the approaches that may work best for you. VLCD formulas are designed to provide all of the nutrients you need while helping you lose weight quickly. The number of calories may be adjusted based on your age, weight, and how active you are. Not much is known about the use of VLCDs to promote weight loss among older adults. The rapid weight loss experienced by most people on a VLCD can be very motivating. Patients who participate in a VLCD program that also includes lifestyle changes may lose about 15 to 25 percent of their initial weight during the first 3 to 6 months. To prevent weight regain, the VLCD should always be combined with other ways to lose weight and with an active follow-up program.


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Very low calorie diets – Live Well – NHS Choices


Your BMI is a measure of whether you are a healthy weight for your height. Achieving a healthy weight is all about striking the right balance between the energy that you put into your body, and the energy that you use. You can learn more about changing your diet in Healthy eating , and get advice on becoming more active in Fitness . However, if you have made these changes already and the weight loss you’ve experienced has not resulted in a healthy weight, you may benefit from a very low calorie diet. It’s also important that the diet you choose is safe, and that you follow it properly. It’s important that VLCDs are only used by people who need them and that the diet is safe and followed properly. You have already made healthy changes to your diet and level of physical activity. If you think a VLCD may be right for you, the first step is to talk to your GP. They can provide advice on whether a VLCD will help: they may measure your BMI and talk to you about other steps you’ve taken to lose weight. VLCDs are not suitable for people with certain health conditions, such as eating disorders and epilepsy, and your GP can also talk to you about this. At your first session, a counsellor from the VLCD organisation will talk to you about how the diet works, the weight loss you can expect and the side effects that may occur while you are on the diet.


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Very Low Calorie Diets For Weight Loss - W8MD's


Very Low Calorie Diets For Weight Loss. Quick Weight Loss Almost As Fast As Post Bariatric Surgery With VLCD Diets. Medical Nutrition Therapy For Fast Weight Loss. We also offer 1000-1500 calorie Low Calorie Diets with or without meal replacements along with appropriate medications for fast and safe weight loss under careful medical supervision and your insurance might cover the cost of the visits. We carry delicious and the most affordable Protein Meal Replacements with protein bars, shakes, smoothies, soups, and other weight loss supplements that can safely be used as liquid meal replacements lose the weight on your own although it is a bit more time consuming and can potentially be frustrating to do the calorie counting. Weight loss program reviews. Rapid Weight Loss With 800 calorie VLCD Diet  The rapid weight loss experienced by most people on a VLCD can be very motivating. How can W 8 MD Medical Weight Loss Program Help? W 8 MD Medical Weight Loss Program is a medical weight loss and sleep wellness program for people who are serious about losing weight and gaining control of their health. Since acceptance is limited to only about 10 new patients a week at this time, call W 8 MD today at 718-946-5500 to see if you can be accepted in the W 8 MD’s insurance medical weight loss program. Think W 8 MD for weight loss!


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Dangers of Very Low Calorie Diet Plan


Very low calorie diets - the dangers. Very Low Calorie Diets are weight loss diets that are extremely low in calories – at or under 800 Calories Per Day. This is an extremely low amount and medical consultation, and often supervision, is always required for a diet of this type because of the dangers it can present to the patient. The Low Calorie level in a VLCD is essential as the aim of the diet is to reduce the patient’s calorie intake to a point just above the body’s starvation point. A Very Low Calorie Diet plan will keep intake at the point at which this begins to happen so that the fat loss is as rapid as possible and that muscle deposits are not reduced. Heart Failure is by far the biggest risk for patients on a Very Low Calorie Diet plan. Weight to Go is not a Very Low Calorie Diet. Weight to Go requires no medical consultation or supervision and our diet meals are carefully designed by nutritionists to ensure that you get all the essential minerals and the fibre you require.


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Low Calorie Diets - Scottsdale Weight Loss


Low Calorie Diets. Low calorie diets limit the number of calories that are eaten throughout the day by: Low and Very Low Calorie Diets. Many low calorie diets will reduce daily caloric intake by several hundred calories a day. Very low calorie diets take calorie restriction to the next level by greatly reducing the number of calories eaten in a day by utilizing meal replacement shakes and bars. Often, very low calorie diets reduce caloric intake to about 800 calories daily.


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Very Low Calorie Diets - VLCD - Expert Diet Plan Reviews


A Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD) is a diet where normal meals are replaced with drinks, soups, or bars. These diets are popular because initially people can lose a lot of weight quickly. A VLCD is normally only used privately and in the medical profession to bring about rapid weight loss in the dangerously overweight person. These diets should be undertaken only under medical supervision. The diet is only undertaken for a short period of time (a few weeks). In some situations, the meal replacements may only be used for two meals a day – therefore bringing about slower but more manageable weight loss. Initially people following very low calorie diets can lose a lot of weight, which keeps these diets popular. If a dieter wants to use a VLCD, he or she should only do so under medical supervision and if extreme weight loss is needed. A very low calorie diet is not recommended unless under the care or a physician or medical team and is intended for those that have a considerable amount of weight to lose. It isn’t for those who only have 10-20 pounds to lose and can be especially dangerous for those dieters. Clinical Impact of a 6-Week Preoperative Very Low Calorie Diet on Body Weight and Liver Size in Morbidly Obese Patients.


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One - Week Very Low - Calorie Diet


Very low-calorie diets are often used for obese patients. You can lose 3 to 5 pounds following a very low-calorie diet, or VLCD, for one week, according to Weight-control Information Network. Very low-calorie diets are often used for rapid weight loss in obese individuals at high risk for obesity-related health problems. Very low-calorie diets often contain meal replacements, which usually consist of nutrient-dense medical nutrition shakes or bars. Very low-calorie diets are beneficial because they lead to rapid weight loss and reduce chronic disease risks. Weight-control Information Network reports most very low-calorie diets are used for about 12 weeks, but following a VLCD for just one week can help you lose up to 5 pounds. Low-calorie diets, or LCDs, are just as effective as very low-calorie diets long term and are generally less expensive, according to a review published in a 2006 edition of the journal “Obesity.” Weight-control Information Network confirms these study findings, and notes LCDs are often easier to adhere to than VLCDs. Low-calorie diets often contain 1,000 to 1,600 calories daily.


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HMR Very Low Calorie Diets - SSM Health St. Louis


The HMR® (Health Management Resources) Low Calorie and Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCD) are medically supervised weight-loss programs offered at the SSM Health Weight Management Services. The amount of weight-loss possible. The speed of weight-loss. The proven maintenance program. Studies show that the fewer decisions you have to make about what to eat, the more likely it is you will lose weight. Currently, HMR has the most successful weight-loss and outcome data of any ongoing diet treatment program. HMR collects weight and health-related data from program participants across the country.


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Information on very low calorie diets for weight


However, an alternative method that moderately to severely obese people may consider for significant, short-term weight loss is the very low-calorie diet (VLCD). However, VLCDs are no more effective than more modest dietary restrictions in the long-term maintenance of reduced weight. Combining a VLCD with behavioral therapy and exercise may increase weight loss and help keep it off for the long-term. Are VLCDs Safe?


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Very Low - Calorie Diets : Are They Safe for Weight Loss


Many very low-calorie diets are commercially-made formulas of 800 calories or fewer that replace all the food you usually eat. Very low-calorie diets are not the same as over-the-counter meal replacements, which you substitute for one or two meals a day. How Effective Are Very Low-Calorie Diets? Are Very Low-Calorie Diets Safe? Very low-calorie diets are not OK for everyone. For people who are overweight but not obese (BMI of 27-30), very low-calorie diets should be reserved for those who have weight-related medical problems and are under medical supervision. What Are the Side Effects of Very Low-Calorie Diets? Gallstones are the most common serious side effect of very low-calorie diets.


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Low Calorie Diet, Weight Loss Diets, Calorie Counter


All food contains calories (energy) and a simple method of reducing body fat and losing weight is to reduce the calorie intake to less than the body requires to maintain its’ weight. However, this method requires the individual to accurately measure out the food and monitor their calorie intake. The individual will then use food tables to work out the calorie content of the foods to meet their calorie goal each day. Food manufacturers by law have to include the calorie content of the product on the food label. This means that anyone can work out the calorie content of each meal, snack or beverage. With the introduction of online food dietary analysis sites (like Weightplan.com) individuals can work out their daily calorie requirement to achieve weight loss. Foods and drinks consumed can be added onto the online database, so that they can calculate their calorie intake to reach their goal each day. The individual will be set a daily goal of total points they are allowed to meet their daily calorie requirement for weight loss. Individuals have been reported to save up their points for the evening, so they can have a higher calorie meal with alcoholic beverages, or for a ‘treat’ type food, or so they can eat more over the weekend.


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VERY‐LOW‐CALORIE DIETS


Correspondence should be directed to Olivia Farrer at [email protected] INTRODUCTION It is often heard that rapid weight loss using a very‐low‐calorie diet (VLCD) is inadvisable because ‘the faster you lose weight the faster it is regained’. This can often be assumed as traditionally a VLCD does not promote the necessary lifestyle changes required to maintain weight loss on cessation of the program. However, with almost four million adult Australians currently obese, more people are turning to less traditional weight loss methods to help win the battle of the bulge. Research demonstrates that achieving just 5–10% weight loss has significant health benefits for obese people and for every kilogram lost an individual reduces their risk of type 2 diabetes by 16%. As health professionals we have the opportunity to use all of the evidence‐based options available for weight loss to help people lose weight healthily and to assist with important lifestyle modifications that a bought product cannot. Weight the faster it is regained’. Traditional weight loss methods to help win the battle of the. Weight loss has significant health benefits for obese people. Available for weight loss to help people lose weight healthily. Health (based on the Dietary Guidelines for Australian. Sider all treatment methods and negotiate the best plan for. Between a meal replacement and a VLCD? VLED can be considered for use in the obese (BMI > 30) Weight loss required for surgery.


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Very Low Calorie Diet Plan : RFO Weight Loss


The RFO Program was one of the first programs in the world to employ a very low calorie diet (VLCD). The average weight loss on the VLCD program is in the range of 3 to 5 pounds per week. At the center, patients are prescribed a VLCD diet plan of 400 to 1000 calories per day, consisting of a special nutritional product (RFO formula) made to our specifications, which contains 15 grams of high quality protein and a full compliment of vitamins and minerals. The majority of VLCD patients will also require a potassium supplement in addition to their RFO formula. Patients participating in the VLCD program are carefully monitored. Research results from the RFO program have been published in the medical literature and have documented weight loss ranging from 50 to 250 pounds, depending upon the patients' initial weight.


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Very low calorie diets : Cut the Waist


Very low calorie diets. Most obese individuals can lose a substantial amount of weight in the short term with very low calorie diets. However, an insurmountable challenge for medical weight loss programmes, including very low calorie diets, has been a limitation of their ability to maintain sustained weight loss long term. This has made very low calorie diets amongst the most controversial therapeutic strategies for the management of obesity. Indications for very low calorie diets. Very low calorie diets are not appropriate for certain people and for those who have the following medical conditions: Effectiveness of very low calorie diets. The National Institute for Health (US) identified four RCT's to compare VLCDs of 400-500calories/day with low calorie diets (LCDs) of 1000-1500calories/day for a period of 6 months to 5 years. Weight management is the cornerstone of treatment of type 2 diabetes 7 and substantial weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes using very low calorie diets can dramatically improve glycaemic control 8 .


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List of diets - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that he or she habitually consumes. A vegetarian diet is one which excludes meat. Lacto vegetarianism : A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy, but excludes eggs and foods which contain animal rennet. Lacto-ovo vegetarianism : A vegetarian diet that includes eggs and dairy. Plant-based diet : A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Breatharian diet : A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that food is not necessary for human subsistence. Crash diet and fad diet are general terms. Elemental diet : A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion. Gluten-free diet : A diet which avoids the protein gluten , which is found in barley, rye and wheat. [43] This diet is not the dialysis diet, [44] which is something completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein which are hard for the kidney to break down but especially limits: potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquid diet : A diet in which only liquids are consumed. Alkaline diet : The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low p H levels – such as grains , dairy , meat , sugar , alcohol , caffeine and fungi .


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Very low - calorie diet plans : Weight loss at


Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs) Very low-calorie diets may be appropriate if other approaches to weight loss have not been effective. Drawbacks of very low-calorie diets.


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Reduced fat and calorie diets : How low is too low


Reduced fat and calorie diets: How low is too low? I try to consume under 900 calories a day and under seven grams of fat a day. I read that now my body will begin to store the calories I consume as fat. And if it is, how can I correct it so I don't store them as fat. In terms of your questions, your body won't store the calories you do consume as fat because you aren't taking in enough calories to for any of them to be stored. During times of very low calorie consumption, such as 900 calories per day, the body naturally slows its metabolism in order to conserve energy and attempt to keep your body functioning. No matter what a person weighs, 900 calories and seven grams of fat a day severely deprives a person of the nutrients their body requires. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization recommends that fat be at least 15 percent of caloric intake, and for women of reproductive age it should be at least 20 percent. Fat is also essential in our diets for the absorption of certain fat-soluble vitamins, like A, D, E, and K. Carbohydrates are the preferred source of energy for our bodies, and will burn first. We can also use protein for energy which means that even if a person eats enough protein, her or his body will burn the protein as energy if s/he is consuming too few calories. Big props to you for educating yourself on your body and how it works.


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The Danger of a Low - Cal Diet


It may be tempting to cut as much as you can from your diet to try to fix your weight and health problems, but restricting calories to very low levels is fraught with risks - and it may not even work in the long term. We'll achieve the body we want on a diet of barely any calories and we'll live happily ever after. The problem is that very low-calorie diets (or "VLCDs", as they're known) come with their own problems and even the best of them should be undertaken only under strict medical supervision. Any diet that restricts your calorie intake to 800 calories a day (or less) comes into the category of being very low-calorie. These include the Cabbage Soup Diet or Grapefruit Diet. Any of these may sound tempting as a way of slashing calories and dropping kilos fast, but it's not wise to embark on one without understanding all the pitfalls first. And a doctor would ensure any patient he or she puts on such a diet returns to the surgery for check-ups each week, because of the health risks and side-effects they may be subjected to by the lack of calories and nutrients. The risks and side-effects of these diets include: The reason you may suffer with all or any of these side-effects is partly because of the rapid changes your body goes through, and partly because it's difficult to receive all the nutrients you need from so few calories. However, it also concluded that these diets were "not very satisfactory" for long-term weight loss. A similar study in 2001 concluded that longer-term strategies were needed for sustained weight loss, suggesting that these diets are not the magic bullet we might hope they are. Even if you do manage to stick to it for seven days in a row, then yes, you'd be eating very few calories, but you'd also be taking in very little in the way of nutrients. It sounds marginally more appealing than the Cabbage Soup Diet (who doesn't love a grapefruit for their breakfast once in a while?), but it has few long-term effects. People who've tried the diet may have upped their vitamin C intake, but aside from that, the grapefruit has little positive effect.


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Very Low Calorie Diet Doesn't Work For Fat Loss, Says Tom


Re: The very Low Calorie Diet Paradox. Very Low Calorie Diets can make you fat! And The Worst Low Calorie Diet Side Effect Of All. At the end, for all your trouble, this often leaves you a 'SKINNY FAT PERSON', which I define as someone with a low body weight and low level of lean body mass who still has a relatively high body fat percentage. The Strange (And Dangerous) Low Calorie Diet Paradox. When you go on a very low calorie diet, eventually YOUR BODY ADAPTS. You "fire" a low calorie diet at your body and it zaps off some weight in the begining. In the long run, very low calorie diets can actually make you fatter. You can eat more and burn more fat. Burn The Fat.com , and if you remember only one thing from this website, always remember, the first secret to permanent fat loss is to BURN THE FAT, don't STARVE THE FAT." Avoid very low calorie diets, and BURN MORE with weight training and cardio training, while providing your body with the nutrition it needs and you WILL succeed!


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Low - Calorie Diets and Weight Loss Success


The first is that without realizing it, you were getting extra calories from sources like sauces, spreads, and dressings. The other possibility is that 1,200 calories is more than you burn in a day—if you happen to have a very slow metabolism or low activity levels. Genes determine your metabolic rate—the number of calories you burn while at rest—so you don't have a lot of control over that number (although extreme diets and weight loss can in fact slow your metabolism). But you can boost your activity levels by exercising daily, and a strength-training regimen that adds muscle should increase your calorie burn. It's been said many times before, but all weight loss comes down to a simple equation: You need to expend more calories than you take in. But you've already demonstrated your ability to lose weight; with some extra effort, you can turn your hand into a winning one.


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Very - low - calorie diets and sustained weight loss


Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss. To review of the literature on the topic of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and the long-term weight-maintenance success in the treatment of obesity. A literature search of the following keywords: VLCD, long-term weight maintenance, and dietary treatment of obesity. VLCDs and low-calorie diets with an average intake between 400 and 800 kcal do not differ in body weight loss. There is evidence that a greater initial weight loss using VLCDs with an active follow-up weight-maintenance program, including behavior therapy, nutritional education and exercise, improves weight maintenance.


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Are very low - calorie diets effective for weight loss


Dieting For Weight Loss. Are very low-calorie diets effective for weight loss? Topics Wellness Weight Loss Dieting For Weight Loss Are very low-calorie diets effective for weight loss? In this video, nutrition and weight management specialist Dr. In the short term, a very low-calorie diet generally does result in weight loss. However, the weight loss is generally muscle and water weight. And because when you lose muscle your metabolic rate slows down, making harder to keep the weight off. For long term weight loss that can be maintained, a diet that is moderate in calorie restriction is much more effective. A lot of people put themselves on very low-calorie diets when they get serious about losing weight.


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Best Very Low Calorie Diet Plans That Work For Fast Weight


If you’re looking to maximize your fat loss results, you might find yourself considering a very low calorie diet plan (VLCD). Very low calorie diet plans promise the allure of rapid weight loss results and do have their fair share of fervent supporters. But before you hop onto a very low calorie diet (defined as being 800 calories or less) and thinking you’ll melt away the lbs with ease, there are few key things to consider. Let’s go over what you need to know about very low calorie diets. First, it’s important that you understand what very low calorie diets are trying to do. When this happens, hunger is almost non-existent and maintaining a very low calorie intake becomes incredibly easy for most people. Lose Muscle – This might not seem like such a drawback to most but if you do begin to lose lean muscle mass from using a very low calorie diet, you are going to find that maintaining the weight loss achieved is much more difficult as your metabolic rate will have slowed down further as a result of losing muscle. So When Could You Use A Very Low Calorie Diet Plan. Choosing Your Very Low Calorie Diet Carefully. If you are going to try out a very low calorie diet, it’s important you choose wisely. A few very low calorie diets that, when used over the very short term, can produce some good results are: This very low calorie diet is widely used and consists of 3 phases.


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Dieting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle ). A study published in American Psychologist found that short-term dieting involving "severe restriction of calorie intake" does not lead to "sustained improvements in weight and health for the majority of individuals". [4] Other studies have found that the average individual maintains some weight loss after dieting. Low-fat diets involve the reduction of the percentage of fat in one's diet. Some of the most commonly used low-calorie diets include DASH diet and Weight Watchers . Weight loss diets that manipulate the proportion of macronutrients (low-fat, low-carbohydrate, etc.) have been shown to be more effective than diets that maintain a typical mix of foods with smaller portions and perhaps some substitutions (e.g. The former include Weight Watchers and Peertrainer . Other weight loss medications, like amphetamine , are addictive and consequently are now banned in the US for casual weight loss. [7] This may reflect the loss of subcutaneous fat and beneficial mass from organs and muscle in addition to visceral fat when there is a sudden and dramatic weight loss. A comparison of Atkins, Zone diet , Ornish diet, and LEARN diet in premenopausal women found the greatest benefit from the Atkins diet . Diets 2 and 3 lost the most weight and fat mass; however, low density lipoprotein fell in Diet 2 and rose in Diet 3. A meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that low glycemic index or low glycemic load diets led to more weight loss and better lipid profiles.


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Very low calorie diet - Wikipedia, the free


A 1997 study concludes that the short-term use of a VLCD is very effective in rapidly improving glycaemic control and promoting substantial weight loss in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes . PMID   7024153 . PMID   25844997 . "Very low calorie diet (VLCD): a useful alternative in the treatment of the obese NIDDM patient". PMID   9229194 . PMID   1615889 . PMID   3200265 . PMID   2669662 . PMID   2160441 . PMID   2559044 .


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Weight Loss : Very Low Calorie Diets - Diet and Weight Loss


VLCDs are not the same as over-the-counter meal replacements, which are meant to substitute for one or two meals a day. VLCDs, when used under proper medical supervision, effectively produce significant short-term weight loss in patients who are moderately to extremely obese. VLCDs are intended to produce rapid weight loss at the start of a weight-loss program in patients with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. Also, people over 50 may not tolerate the side effects associated with VLCDs because of preexisting medical conditions or need for other medications. Physicians must evaluate on a case-by-case basis the potential risks and benefits of rapid weight loss in older individuals, as well as in people with significant medical problems or who are on medications. A VLCD may allow a patient who is moderately to extremely obese to lose about 3 to 5 pounds per week, for an average total weight loss of 44 pounds over 12 weeks. The drug ursodiol can prevent gallstone formation during rapid weight loss, but is not often used for this purpose.


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Very - Low - Calorie Diets and Sustained


Therefore, the use of VLCDs and LCDs results in significantly different weight loss for different groups, for instance, between men and women. This is not the case in the first 2 weeks of VLCD use because much of the weight loss is fluid and glycogen. In this way, a comparison can be made between the relatively large and small initial weight losses often seen in RCTs with VLCD treatment. In the study by Pekkarinen and Mustajoki ( 29 ), subjects who were treated with VLCD and BT regained only 26% of their initial lost body weight. The authors defined two alternative criteria for long-term success: no regain of initial weight loss (or further weight loss) and maintenance of at least 9 to 11 kg of the initial weight loss. Conventional diet with group therapy and VLCD with BT were the most efficacious treatment modalities. An active follow-up after an initial weight loss with VLCD gave the highest success rate (38%) compared with VLCD and BT with no support after initial treatment. In the study by Toubro and Astrup ( 34 ), the effect of weight-loss rate and absolute weight loss were separated. Patients were randomized for a VLCD (420 kcal/d) or a conventional diet (CD; 1250 kcal/d), aiming for the same weight loss of 13.6 and 13.8 kg, respectively. Randomization for a 1-year weight maintenance program with a 1-year follow-up resulted in extra weight-loss maintenance in the VLCD group compared with the CD group of 2.4 kg after 1 year and 3.0 kg after 2 years, respectively. The study by Pekkarinen and Mustajoki ( 29 ), with an 8.9 kg and 22.2 kg initial weight loss, shows much better long-term results after 5 years (4.9 kg and 16.9 kg weight loss, respectively, or 4.5% and 26% regain of initial weight loss, respectively). Van Gaal ( 7 ) concluded in this review that the greater initial weight loss by VLCD produces better long-term results if the VLCD period is actively followed up with a program including nutritional education, BT, and increased PA. VLCD in combination with active follow-up treatment seems to be one of the better treatment modalities for long-term weight maintenance success.


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