Muscle wasting and weight loss


Signs and Symptoms of Muscle Wasting


Signs & Symptoms of Muscle Wasting. The signs and symptoms of muscle wasting can help identify the cause. Muscle wasting, or atrophy, results from muscle disuse over a long period, or from malnutrition. Muscle wasting can be debilitating, particularly if it results from malnutrition related to a disease. Physical signs of malnutrition related muscle wasting include loss of appetite, dizziness upon standing up, low iron levels and other blood proteins, the "Merck Manual" notes. Diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, celiac sprue, protein-energy malnutrition, gluten allergy and cancer can cause nutrient-absorption issues and lead to muscle wasting, according to the "Merck Manual."


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Unexplained weight loss and muscle wasting


You may think you are eating enough, but this may not be the case. I hope you get to speak with the oncologist tomorrow and that he will jump on this. Both my friend and her oncologist know there is no cure for her disease but that they can (and hopefully will) be able to maintain a decent QOL and keep the beast at bay for while. I realize that in my friend's case, the doctors know exactly where the cancer is and what type it is, whereas in your situation, they're not sure but seem fairly certain that it's prostate cancer that has spread. Then, figure out a break-out strategy with him that is your best bet, and hit your body's enemy hard where it will do it the most damage using this strategy. David, from your posts it sounds like your oncologist is making the decision for you (and I don't think this is true). I know you (I think) and know that you have researched your options and are aware of the pros and cons of each. But as you can see from the Mod's post above, some people get so rude and pushy - that it becomes a flame. Again, just a thought, and I have no idea if it would for sure be the right decision. But I understand that it is ultimately between you and your doc. There are days and times, where the pain will still outpace the meds, but I can say with total honesty, I have never abused or taken more than prescribed by my doctor, regardless of the pain I am feeling. We mutally have agreed not to up anything at this time, because we both know that as my condition progresses, he will have to have the tools and meds to still control future pain.


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Changes to Your Face and Body


An excess of this kind of fat can raise the risk of a heart attack and diabetes. Men are more likely to lose fat in the legs, arms, buttocks and face. The changes in fat distribution resulting from both lipoatrophy and lipodystrophy are generally permanent. Engaging in regular cardiovascular exercise may help reduce the accumulation of belly fat, and can likely do so without affecting lipoatrophy (fat loss). Regular exercise can also help regulate cholesterol, triglycerides and sugar in the blood. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the drug to treat excess abdominal fat in people with HIV experiencing lipodystrophy. Breast reduction surgery can reduce fat accumulation in the breast, both for men and women. The causes of lipodystrophy, including lipoatrophy (abnormal fat loss) and lipohypertrophy (abnormal fat gain) are not very well understood. What is the treatment for facial lipoatrophy? The human growth hormone Serostim is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of HIV-related weight loss. Research suggests smoking pot stimulates the appetite and can lead primarily to fat gain.


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AIDS wasting syndrome


AIDS Wasting Syndrome. AIDS wasting syndrome occurs when you have AIDS and lose at least 10% of your body weight - especially muscle. You may also have at least 30 days of diarrhea or extreme weakness and fever that's not related to an infection. Not a specific disease, AIDS wasting syndrome is a poorly understood condition of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). What Causes AIDS Wasting Syndrome? 1 cause of AIDS wasting syndrome is not taking HAART medications . If you have AIDS, the following factors can work together to promote weight loss and wasting syndrome: HIV disease burns calories fast, so you need more calories to maintain your body weight . Diagnosing AIDS Wasting Syndrome. To diagnose AIDS wasting syndrome, your doctor will take a history, asking questions, for example, about your diet, the medications you're taking, and whether you've been depressed. In addition, you may need a body composition test to evaluate the makeup of tissues in your body. You should have this done in a center experienced with AIDS wasting syndrome.


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The Mechanism of Muscle Loss in Cancer


The Mechanism of Muscle Loss in Cancer. Cancer wasting, also called cancer cachexia, is marked by weakness and the progressive loss of body weight, fat, and muscle. The cells then fuse with surrounding muscle fibers to increase muscle mass. In both mice and cancer patients, wasting was associated with muscle damage and activation of nearby stem cells. However, the stem cells became arrested in a semi-differentiated state and failed to fuse with the other muscle fibers. When arrested stem cells from wasting mice were removed from the tumor environment and placed in tumor-free culture, they were able to complete differentiation to muscle cells. When tumors were excised from wasting mice, the stem cells in the mice were able to complete their differentiation and fuse into muscle fibers. Consequently, the mice regained muscle mass. They found that overexpression of Pax7, which regulates muscle stem cell proliferation, impairs the stem cells’ differentiation to muscle cells in mice with cachexia. “By identifying agents that overcome the block and allow muscle stem cells to differentiate, it might be possible to restore muscle mass and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients with cachexia.”


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Muscle Wasting and The Weight, Strength and Resistance


This study explains the biological processes that cause muscle wasting as you move into your senior years. As you likely know, protein is essential for proper muscle growth and maintenance, but this study found that as you age, your body becomes increasingly less able to use the protein in your food for building muscle. Statins are a class of drugs used to lower your cholesterol, and are among the most commonly prescribed medications in the world. How Weight Lifting Can Reduce Your Risk of Diabetes and Heart Disease. Subcutaneous fat is the fat located just below your skin, and is the type that causes dimpling and cellulite. Visceral fat, on the other hand, shows up in your abdomen and surrounds your vital organs including your liver, heart and muscles. Exercise is a critical component for reducing heart disease risk because it both lowers inflammation in your body , and is one of the best weapons against visceral fat. So, as you gain more muscle, your body naturally increases the amount of calories burned each day, which reduces fat stores. In addition, as you build more muscle, and make the muscle that you already have stronger, you also put more constant pressure on your bones. And do include strength training into your fitness routine. It is the number one way for you to remain strong, young, and independent well into old age.


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Skeletal muscle loss : cachexia, sarcopenia, and inactivity


Loss of skeletal muscle protein results from an imbalance between the rate of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Cachexia, sarcopenia, and atrophy due to inactivity are characterized by a loss of muscle mass. It is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and body weight. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle and function. Cachexia has been defined by Evans et al ( 1 ) as "a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Although cachexia is associated with both fat and muscle loss, the benefits of preserving skeletal muscle or body fat stores is still unresolved. Loss of body weight, fat, and skeletal muscle has been associated with increased mortality in patients with cachexia. Skeletal muscle ( 22 ) and bone mass are the principal components of lean body mass to decline with age. Loss of skeletal muscle with advancing age begins relatively early, and continues until the end of life ( 22 ). These data along with no increase in 3-methylhistidine excretion led the authors to conclude that the increased nitrogen and muscle loss resulted from an inhibition of protein synthesis. The authors concluded ( 45 , 46 ) that the loss of body protein with inactivity was predominantly due to a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. These authors also showed that bedrest had no effect on the rate of muscle protein degradation, and muscle loading increased the rate of protein synthesis.


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Muscle Loss in Dogs, Muscle Wastage in Senior Dogs Dog


Aspergillosis is a fungal disease that usually affects the nasal passages and respiratory system. If the disease spreads throughout the body it is known as disseminated aspergillosis. The most common form of thyroid disease is autoimmune thyroiditis, which is typified by the antithyroid antibodies that appear in the canine’s blood and tissue. The most common treatment for thyroid disease is daily injections of the T 4 hormone; the brand names for T 4 hormones are Soloxine and Synthroid. Myositis is an inflammation of the muscles and can be a sign of a more serious illness. Myositis can affect just one muscle, such as the jaw, or it can affect groups at a time. Although degenerative myelopathy is a spinal cord disorder, it also causes muscle wasting and loss in the hind legs. While the cause of degenerative myelopathy is unknown, it is thought to be an autoimmune disease. The term tick disease is used as an umbrella term that includes Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and basesiosis. Symptom of tick-related disease include muscle wasting, swelling of the extremities, nose bleeds and fever. Some muscle loss, notably on the head and the belly muscles, can signify diseases such as masticatory myositis and Cushing’s Disease. Treatment may include drug therapy, surgery, physical therapy and muscle support products – the best being our Spero harness.


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Muscle atrophy and Weight loss - Right Diagnosis


AND Weakness (185 matches) AND Sensations (110 matches) AND Impotence (17 matches) AND Vertigo (17 matches) AND Osteoporosis (17 matches) AND Drowsiness (16 matches) AND Anorexia (15 matches) AND Amenorrhea (14 matches) AND Blindness (14 matches) AND Malabsorption (7 matches) AND Infertility (6 matches)


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Cachexia in pancreatic cancer : new treatment


Cachexia has long been recognized as a direct cause of reduced quality of life complicating both the early and late stages of cancer, particularly in patients with tumours originating in the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach or lung. Taken together, these changes are thought to contribute to the reduced quality and quantity of life associated with cachexia. Patients with pancreatic cancer have the highest prevalence and often develop the most severe degrees of cachexia. The ageing process is often paralleled by decreases in muscle and increases in fat mass, which may culminate in sarcopenic obesity. The present study by Aslani and co-workers 2 examines the relationship between tumour stage and altered body composition in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. In the study by Aslani et al., 2 patients with more advanced disease (involved surgical margins) are shown to have more significant alterations in body composition, notably decreased body protein mass and fat mass. It remains to be seen whether these early changes predict the later degree and impact of cachexia on outcome. Interestingly, the presence of muscle wasting in obese patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is associated with shortened survival. Such issues might be resolved by the development of effective therapy for cachexia and concomitant use of activity monitoring in proof-of-concept trials. Therapies based on these pathways are currently in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials in cancer patients, and the demonstration of their potential efficacy to stem losses of weight and muscle, alter physical function and improve quality of life will be available in the foreseeable future. 2 However, for the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer, resection is not possible and palliation with systemic chemotherapy is the main method of prolonging, albeit limited, survival. Cachexia is associated with lower tolerance for chemotherapy, which limits the total dose that can be delivered, the number of symptomatic responses and any survival advantage that might be accrued.


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Wasting Syndrome or Cancer Cachexia - Mesothelioma Aid


Cachexia, also known as Wasting Syndrome, describes a condition in which the body begins to deteriorate during the end-stages of diseases such as cancer and AIDS. The onset of AIDS wasting and cancer wasting usually occurs when a person is close to death, and it is signaled by a loss of ten percent or more of body mass when the person is not intending to lose that mass. In some patients and for some diseases, there will be episodes of wasting to a lesser degree as the disease progresses without leading to death, but when a sudden loss of ten percent or greater occurs, it is a sign that the stage of the disease is advanced to a terminal stage. The main symptoms of wasting syndrome are its defining factors, the loss of weight from muscle and fat deterioration. While healthy individuals can lose a percentage of their lean body mass and fat, the dangers are especially pronounced for cancer and AIDS patients as their bodies will burn large amounts of muscle to fight an infection. Converting fat is much more difficult for the body than converting the protein in muscle, so the primary signature of wasting syndrome is that the body loses muscle much faster than fat. To identify wasting syndrome, a doctor can perform a BIA test, bioelectrical impedance analysis, to keep track of the patient's weight, or a doctor could track a patient's BMI, body mass index, to watch for sudden, pronounced weight loss. While there is no standard treatment for wasting syndrome, there are methods to treat the symptoms while a person is affected to encourage a recovery. Due to the variable nature of wasting syndrome, there is no set way to treat it, and a doctor will need to identify and treat specific symptoms on a case-by-case basis.


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Muscle wasting and weakness


Muscle wasting and weakness: Symptoms » Muscle wasting and weakness. Muscle wasting and weakness: Introduction. » Review Causes of Muscle wasting and weakness: Causes | Symptom Checker » Muscle wasting and weakness: Symptom Checker. Muscle wasting and weakness: Animations. Muscle wasting and weakness: Comorbid Symptoms. Causes of Similar Symptoms to Muscle wasting and weakness. Misdiagnosis and Muscle wasting and weakness. Detailed list of causes of Muscle wasting and weakness. How Common are these Causes of Muscle wasting and weakness?


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Fish Oil Helps Prevent Weight and Muscle Loss in Cancer


Fish Oil Helps Prevent Weight and Muscle Loss in Cancer Patients. March 1, 2011 — Supplementation with fish oil might help prevent muscle wasting and weight loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. In a small study of 40 patients newly diagnosed with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), those who received fish oil supplements maintained weight, muscle mass, and muscle quality. The study, published online February 28 in Cancer, found that about 69% of the patients who took fish oil gained or maintained muscle mass. "Fish oil may prevent loss of weight and muscle by interfering with some of the pathways that are altered in advanced cancer," said senior author Vera C. Mazurak pointed out that fish oil is safe and nontoxic with virtually no adverse effects, and might benefit patients with other types of cancer or chronic diseases that are associated with malnutrition. However, in their paper, the authors point out that previous results with fish oils in cancer patients have been mixed. Mazurak and colleagues hypothesized that EPA derived from fish oil might help patients maintain or gain muscle. In the control group, there was evidence of loss of skeletal mass, with some patients losing up to 5.2 kg of muscle from baseline to the end of treatment. The fish oil was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported.


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Common Reasons for Weight Loss and Muscle Wasting


Common Reasons for Weight Loss & Muscle Wasting. Weight loss and muscle loss can result from diet, medical conditions or aging. Weight and muscle loss can result from various conditions. Because they can result from serious health conditions, anyone experiencing sudden changes in weight or muscle mass should see their physician. Common causes for weight loss and muscle wasting, or sarcopenia, include changes in diet and activity level, disease and age. This is why proper nutrition and exercise plans should be implemented to prevent muscle loss as you lose weight, the 2008 text "Physiology of Sport and Exercise" notes.


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Cancer, Weight Changes, Muscle Loss, Fatigue


Treating and managing these symptoms can help you feel better and allow you to continue with more of your usual activities. These substances can lead to weight loss, muscle loss, and a decrease in appetite. They can also lead to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and mouth sores, which can affect your ability to eat normally, further contributing to weight and muscle loss. Fatigue is also a factor, since the decreases in exercise and other physical activities that happen when you’re not feeling well can also contribute to muscle loss. How are weight changes and muscle loss treated? These drugs can increase appetite for some people and may help to prevent weight and muscle loss, but they do not build up lost muscle tissue. What can I do to help maintain my weight and build strength? You can also try some upper body exercises while sitting in a chair – moving your arms up and down and front to back can help maintain flexibility. Making a fist and lifting your arms up and down in front of you can increase strength. Note the type of exercises or other physical activities you do and how they affect your mood and energy level. Nutritionists and physical or occupational therapists can advise you on other ways to maintain your weight and build strength as you cope with cancer.


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Muscle Wasting and Weight Loss


Muscle Wasting and Weight Loss. 125,010 conversations around the web about Muscle Wasting to help you make a decision. Treato found 17,582 discussions about Weight Loss and Muscle Wasting on the web. 14.1% of the posts that mention Muscle Wasting also mention Weight Loss (17,582 posts) Muscle Wasting. Treato does not review third-party posts for accuracy of any kind, including for medical diagnosis or treatments, or events in general. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Usage of the website does not substitute professional medical advice. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnoses or treatment. Treato is not responsible for promotions validity, application of the promotion code varies among the different Telehealth sites (for example during registration flow).


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Muscle wasting and weakness and Weight loss


AND Weakness (16 matches) AND Fever (7 matches) AND Sweating (6 matches) AND Sleeplessness (5 matches) AND Dehydration (4 matches) AND Tremor (4 matches) AND Hoarse (4 matches) AND Malnutrition (4 matches) AND Lymphadenopathy (4 matches) AND Neuropathy (3 matches) AND Oligomenorrhoea (3 matches) AND Redness (3 matches) AND Thirst (3 matches)


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Unintentional Weight Loss Wasting - Tufts University


In addition to weight loss, patients with wasting can experience changes in body tissue, specifically a loss of muscle (body mass) and an increase in fat. The link between HIV infection and weight loss, while not completely understood, has many causes. With or without diarrhea, malfunction of the intestine may lead to an inability to absorb nutrients (malabsorption) and may also contribute to weight loss. Progressive resistance exercises can also help increase weight and build muscles in HIV patients with wasting. To treat loss of muscle strength and body mass, HIV-infected men with low levels of testosterone may be given the hormone, either by injection, skin patch, or a gel rubbed directly onto the skin. Called hormone replacement therapy, testosterone can increase muscle strength and body mass without negatively affecting CD 4 cell counts, especially when patients do resistance exercises while they are taking the drug. The problems with excess testosterone, however, are that it reduces HDL (good) cholesterol and exacerbates liver disease, which is common in HIV-infected patients. Growth hormone, also given by injection, may be given to HIV patients to reverse the loss of muscle tissue that occurs in wasting. Body-building steroids, called anabolic analogues, may help patients gain weight and increase muscle mass, but because there are questions about their safety over the long run, especially their effect on the liver, health experts hesitate to use them long-term. Careful assessment of the reason for weight loss can lead to the development of a program for weight gain for most HIV-infected persons. Diet and/or exercise may be recommended in combination with one or more of the drugs discussed, depending on the reason for the weight loss.


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Is it fat loss or muscle wasting


Cachexia represents a challenging clinical syndrome with a profound effect on patients with cancer, including reduced physical function, reduced tolerance to anticancer therapy, and reduced survival.1 Yet, weight loss in patients with cancer often remains undiagnosed and untreated, primarily for two reasons: in the age of obesity, the importance of skeletal muscle mass—with or without loss of fat mass—is only now being evaluated, and a lack of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatments for cachexia.1. However, recent advances in understanding the biology of muscle wasting have led both to an international consensus on the definition and classification of cancer cachexia and an interest in developing pharmacologic treatments for muscle loss.2 To date, “most of the work on human body weight regulation has been done in the context of obesity,” explains Vickie E. Cachexia occurs in more than 80% of patients with gastric, pancreatic, and esophageal cancer; 70% of those with head and neck cancer; and approximately 60% of patients with lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and it contributes directly to death in 20% of cases.3,4 Cachexia was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of less than 20 kg/m2 and an unintentional weight loss of 5% or more over the past 6 months in the setting of underlying disease, such as cancer.3 The expert panel has now agreed that cachexia can develop progressively, from precachexia to cachexia to refractory cachexia, “a spectrum through which not all patients will progress.”1. The new diagnostic criterion for cachexia is weight loss of more than 5% over the past 6 months (in the absence of simple starvation); or BMI of less than 20 kg/m2 and any degree of weight loss greater than 2%; or appendicular skeletal muscle index consistent with sarcopenia (males.


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Catabolic Wasting - Cachexia and Sarcopenia


Levels of growth hormone, testosterone, DHEA, and other hormones important for maintaining muscle mass usually decline with age (Liefke 2000; Jones 2009). Several studies have reported that growth hormone treatment can increase lean weight in people with COPD- or HIV/AIDS-related cachexia (Gullett 2010). A 12-week study of people with HIV/AIDS-related wasting treated 90 subjects with growth hormone (0.1 g/kg body weight per day) and 88 subjects with placebo. An analysis of studies which included a total of 220 older adults reported that use of growth hormone for 2 weeks or more was associated with an average 4.6-pound lean weight gain and no significant change in bone density. Megestrol acetate (Megace®) is a synthetic derivative of the hormone progesterone that increases appetite and is used for that purpose in AIDS and cancer patients with weight loss. A 20-week study of 9 elderly men with kidney dialysis-associated cachexia reported that an exercise program coupled with 800 mg of megestrol acetate daily was associated with an average fat gain of 6.2 pounds and an average lean tissue gain of 5 pounds. Subjects on the exercise program with placebo experienced an average loss of 0.4 pounds of fat and 1.2 pounds of lean tissue (Yeh 2010). The megestrol acetate group experienced an average fat weight gain of 17 pounds and an average lean weight gain of 6.1 pounds. The nandrolone group lost an average of 1.4 pounds of fat and gained an average of 7.8 pounds of lean weight (Batterham 2001). Megestrol acetate treatment may be useful for people with significant loss of both muscle and fat, but it is probably not a good choice for those with significant muscle loss and presence of major fat stores (sarcopenic obesity). Given the frequency of potentially serious side effects such as edema, blood clots, and death associated with megestrol acetate and its lack of superiority to other drugs used to treat wasting, it may not be the ideal choice for all individuals. Mild to moderate neurological side effects such as anxiety, confusion, dizziness, and sleepiness are common with the use of cannabinoids (Beal 1997). Thalidomide (Thalomid®) is a drug that may be helpful to people with cancer-related cachexia and weight loss. Two studies have reported that thalidomide use has been associated with significant gain of total and lean weight in cachectic patients with esophageal or pancreatic cancer (Khan 2003; Gordon 2005). Maintenance of adequate protein and amino acid intake is critical to avert muscle wasting in individuals with cachexia who are receiving enteral nutrition.


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How to Stay Strong and Prevent Muscle Loss


How to Stay Strong and Prevent Muscle Loss. Here, we explain just how long it takes to lose muscle mass and strength, and what to do stop it from happening. One study on rats found that just 48 hours after exercise, the body hits a lower steady-state rate of protein synthesis and stops building and repairing muscle. Protein metabolism and beta-myosin heavy-chain m RNA in unweighted soleus muscle . Age: Regardless of how often we make it to the gym, the natural process of aging can cause muscle loss. Sarcopenia- Age-Related Muscle Wasting and Weakness: Mechanisms and Treatments . Resistance exercise for the aging adult: clinical implications and prescription guidelines . Sleep: Because sleep debt decreases the rate at which the body builds and repairs muscle, skipping sleep to hit the weight room can neutralize results. Sleep and muscle recovery: endocrinological and molecular basis for a new and promising hypothesis . How much and how fast muscles atrophy, or lose mass, depends on the muscle. Skeletal muscle form and function . General muscle strength is usually maintained for at least the first month of inactivity. There's no easy way to prevent loss of muscle mass and strength. While results are inconclusive as to whether eating more protein, specifically, can prevent muscle loss, a balanced diet helps ensure that muscles get the amino acids, vitamins, and minerals they need to build and stay strong. Does protein supplementation prevent muscle disuse atrophy and loss of strength ?


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Muscle Atrophy, Causes, Tests, Diagnosis and Treatment


Muscle atrophy takes place when a muscle partially or completely wastes away and its mass decreases. Most cases of muscle atrophy are usually results of other pre-existing medical conditions that include the loss of muscle mass as a side effect. Some medical conditions that have muscle atrophy as one of its signs and symptoms may include: The reversibility of muscle atrophy will depend on the case of treatment as well as at the discretion of the physician; he or she may prescribe supplements that may help retain muscle mass. Anorexia nervosa : This eating disorder, characterized by the refusal of food due to an obsessive maintenance of body weight, can also lead to muscle atrophy. Similar to starvation, the symptoms of muscle atrophy can be reversed with therapy and adopting a healthy diet. Depending on the seriousness of COPD, there is a chance that muscle atrophy may be reversed by successful treating COPD. Drug abuse: Recreational drug abuse, such as the abuse of methamphetamine, can lead to muscle atrophy and possibly death.


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Muscle Wasting and Weight Gain


Muscle Wasting and Weight Gain. 125,023 conversations around the web about Muscle Wasting to help you make a decision. Treato found 8,662 discussions about Weight Gain and Muscle Wasting on the web. 6.93% of the posts that mention Muscle Wasting also mention Weight Gain (8,662 posts) Muscle Wasting. Treato does not review third-party posts for accuracy of any kind, including for medical diagnosis or treatments, or events in general. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Usage of the website does not substitute professional medical advice. Treato does not provide medical advice, diagnoses or treatment. Treato is not responsible for promotions validity, application of the promotion code varies among the different Telehealth sites (for example during registration flow).


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Catabolic Wasting - Cachexia and Sarcopenia


Loss of muscle and fat tissue due to chronic illness is called cachexia. The general loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs with advancing age is called sarcopenia. In both cachexia and sarcopenia, muscle loss can lead to frailty and adversely affect a variety of clinical outcomes (Rolland 2011; Fearon 2013; Muscaritoli 2013). The term “catabolic wasting” encompasses both sarcopenia and cachexia. Cachexia usually causes more rapid and pronounced weight reduction than sarcopenia and is generally characterized as loss of muscle and fat tissue totaling more than 5% of body weight, but losses of more than 20% of body weight are common (Rolland 2011; Nicolini 2013; Siddiqui 2006; Muscaritoli 2013; Gordon 2004; Gullett 2011). Sarcopenia (from the Greek meaning "poverty of flesh") generally refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function (Iannuzzi-Sucich 2002). Some researchers refer to age-related muscle loss not associated with an underlying cause as “primary sarcopenia,” and that which occurs as a consequence of one or more other causes as “secondary sarcopenia” (Rolland 2011; Muscaritoli 2013). However, many standard medical therapies to treat sarcopenia and cachexia present the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, edema, and fatigue, and some of them have not been adequately tested in clinical trials (Gullett 2010; Fox 2009; Fearon 2013). Early recognition and treatment of cachexia is even more important, considering that losing as little as 5% of body weight in cancer patients may increase the risk of adverse effects from chemotherapy drugs (Brotto 2012; Fearon 2013).


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HIV - Associated Wasting


Evaluation of data from a large French cohort studied between 1985 and 1997 found hazards ratios for death of 2.2 and 4.4 for BMIs of 16.0-18.4 and 55 kg and lower doses for weight =5%, treatment with nandrolone (200 mg/week in men and 100 mg every other week in women) for 12 weeks was associated with significant increases in LBM with no changes in fat. At the approved dosing level (5-20 mg/day), there appears to be less potential for virilizing effects and hepatic toxicity than has been seen with other oral agents. In a placebo-controlled study in 63 HIV-infected men with > 10% weight loss, those randomized to receive oxandrolone in a dose of 15 mg/day gained an average of 0.6 kg at the end of the 16-week study period; weight was unchanged in those who received 5 mg/day and decreased in those on placebo (-1.1 kg).( 147 ) The composition of the weight change was not measured. Oxandrolone treatment was associated with improvements in self-reported appetite and activity, and there were no reported toxicities. In HIV-infected men with weight loss, a 20-mg/day dose of oxandrolone in combination with resistance exercise and testosterone replacement produced striking increases in LBM (+6.9 kg) and indices of strength.( 148 ) As with pharmacologic testosterone and nandrolone, oxandrolone treatment in this latter study produced significant decreases in HDL cholesterol. Another oral agent, oxymetholone, was reported to produce weight gain (mean 5.7 kg) and improvements in Karnofsky score in an early open-label study in patients with HIV-associated weight loss.( 149 ) More recently, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in which 92 men and women with wasting received oxymetholone in total daily doses of 100 or 150 mg or placebo.( 150 ) Preliminary data indicate that both dosing levels of oxymetholone produced significant increases in weight and LBM (+3.7 and +2.7 kg for weight and LBM, respectively, in the group that received 100 mg/day). Because excessive generation of cytokines in response to infection has been associated with metabolic disturbances, anorexia, and wasting, several investigators have studied the effects of relatively weak suppressors of cytokine production in patients with HIV-associated wasting. The effects of thalidomide in patients with HIV-associated weight loss have been evaluated in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.( 152-154 ) In the largest study of the three, 100 patients were randomized to receive thalidomide in doses of either 100 or 200 mg (nightly) or placebo for 8 weeks.( 154 ) Patients randomized to either dosing level of thalidomide experienced modest but significant increases in weight (~4%). Other studies of thalidomide in patients with HIV infection have shown dramatic reversal of oral aphthous ulcers in a placebo-controlled clinical trial,( 155 ) and reductions in stool frequency in patients with chronic diarrhea.( 156 ) In each case, increases in weight accompanied improvement in symptoms. The most prevalent adverse effects of thalidomide in patients with HIV infection have been somnolence, peripheral neuropathy, hypersensitivity, and neutropenia. Despite evidence that thalidomide decreases HIV replication and TNF-alpha production in vitro, plasma levels of HIV RNA and TNF-alpha were found to increase modestly (0.3-0.4 log for HIV RNA) in two recent clinical trials of this agent.( 154,155 ) Although the durability and clinical significance of these increases are not known at this time, they have created uncertainty about the potential role for thalidomide in the treatment of wasting in patients with HIV infection. Small studies of a variety of other weak cytokine suppressors, including pentoxifylline,( 157-159 ) omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil [ 160,161 ], and ketotifen [either alone ( 162 ) or in combination with oxymetholone ( 149 )]) have produced results that are modest at best and provide no compelling rationale to pursue these agents as treatments for HIV-associated wasting. In an early study, progressive resistance training was reported to increase upper and lower body strength and weight in individuals recovering from acute Pneumocystis pneumonia.( 163 ) More recently, increases in weight, LBM, strength, and functional performance have been noted in HIV-positive patients undergoing progressive resistance training, alone or in combination with anabolic steroids.( 137,138,148,164-166 ) Studies have shown that moderate exercise is safe in patients with HIV infection, with no apparent deleterious effects on immune function ( 167,168 ) or viral load.( 169 ) Wasting continues to contribute to increased mortality and morbidity in patients with HIV infection, even in populations with access to effective ART.


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Muscle Atrophy - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments


Muscle Atrophy. What is muscle atrophy? Muscle atrophy, or muscle wasting, results from loss of muscle tissue. The aging process often leads to slow but progressive muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy caused by a nerve problem is called neurogenic atrophy. Seek prompt medical care if you are being treated for muscle atrophy but mild symptoms recur or are persistent.


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Muscle Atrophy : Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis


Muscle atrophy is when muscles waste away. You may have muscle loss if one of your. Muscle Atrophy. You may have muscle loss if one of your limbs appears smaller (not shorter) than the other. Causes of Muscle Atrophy. Muscle atrophy can also happen if you are bedridden or unable to move certain body parts due to a medical condition. Other causes for muscle atrophy include: Diseases can cause muscles to waste away or can make movement difficult, leading to muscle atrophy. Dermatomyositis (a muscle disease) Guillain-Barre syndrome (an autoimmune disease that leads to nerve inflammation and muscle weakness) Muscular dystrophy (an inherited disease that causes muscle weakness) Signs of Muscle Atrophy. You may have muscle atrophy if: Contact your doctor to have a complete medical examination if you believe you may have muscle atrophy or if you are unable to move in a normal manner. How Muscle Atrophy Is Diagnosed.


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Cachexia - definition of cachexia by Medical dictionary


A profound and marked state of constitutional disorder; general ill health and malnutrition. Cachexia hypophysiopri´va symptoms resulting from total loss of pituitary function, including loss of sexual function, bradycardia, hypothermia, apathy, and coma. Malarial cachexia the physical signs resulting from antecedent attacks of severe malaria, including anemia, sallow skin, yellow sclera, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and, in children, retardation of growth and puberty. A general weight loss and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance. /ca·chex·ia/ (kah-kek´se-ah) a profound and marked state of constitutional disorder; general ill health and malnutrition.cachec´tic. Cachexia hypophysiopri´va  the train of symptoms resulting from total deprivation of pituitary function, including loss of sexual function, bradycardia, hypothermia, and coma. Malarial cachexia  the physical signs resulting from antecedent attacks of severe malaria, including anemia, sallow skin, yellow sclera, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and, in children, retardation of growth and puberty. Weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility that can occur during a chronic disease. General ill health and malnutrition, marked by weakness and emaciation, usually associated with severe disease, such as tuberculosis or cancer. Clinical medicine A state of severe weight lose and tissue wasting 2º to underlying disease–eg, AIDS, terminal CA, anorexia nervosa, or malnutrition. A state of severe muscle wasting and weakness occurring in the late stages of serious illnesses such as cancer. A condition of general ill health, malnutrition, undesired weight loss, and physical weakness, often associated with cancer.


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Does Alcohol Consumption Affect Weight Loss and Muscle


Does Alcohol Consumption Affect Weight Loss and Muscle Growth? Does alcohol consumption ruin hormone levels, strength, fat loss, and muscle recovery? Instead, it will answer a question on many people’s minds: how much alcohol can we drink before it will negatively affect our weight loss and muscle growth? Alcohol and Weight Loss. And you might just lose all your muscle as a bonus. In short, it’s not the calories from alcohol that can make you fat, but all the crap that you eat with it, which is hard to resist when you’re hammered. So, if you want to be able to drink while dieting and still lose weight, don’t drink more than one day per week, and use the following tips to protect yourself from excess fat storage: Restrict your dietary fat intake that day, and don’t eat any fatty foods while you’re drinking. Get the vast majority of your calories from protein and carbs that day (with most coming from protein). Had 9 men drink 60-70 grams of alcohol after working out, and it had no effects on testosterone levels during the following 5 hours. Alcohol and Muscle Recovery and Performance. Some people directly apply that type of research to living, breathing humans and say it prevents you from building muscle and accelerates muscle loss. It’s also commonly claimed that alcohol consumption impairs strength and interferes with the body’s ability to repair muscle damage. Alcohol advocates like to talk it up as some kind of superfood, but the bottom line is it’s not necessary in any way for good health, and it won’t give you any performance benefits.


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Cachexia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Cachexia is often seen in end-stage cancer , and in that context is called cancer cachexia. [7] In addition to increasing morbidity and mortality, aggravating the side effects of chemotherapy, and reducing quality of life, cachexia is considered the immediate cause of death of a large proportion of cancer patients, ranging from 22% to 40% of the patients. Symptoms of cancer cachexia include progressive weight loss and depletion of host reserves of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Traditional treatment approaches, such as appetite stimulants, 5-HT 3 antagonists , nutrient supplementation, and COX-2 inhibitor , have failed to demonstrate success in reversing the metabolic abnormalities seen in cancer cachexia. The two main theories of the development of cancer cachexia are: Although the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia is poorly understood, multiple biologic pathways are known to be involved, including proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha , neuroendocrine hormones, IGF-1 , and tumor-specific factors such as proteolysis-inducing factor. The treatment or management of cachexia depends on the underlying causes, the general prognosis and other person related factors. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of oral fish oil for the management of cachexia associated with advanced cancer. Pharmacological interventions with appetite stimulants, nutrient supplementation, 5-HT 3 antagonists and Cox-2 inhibitor have been used to treat cancer cachexia, but with limited effect. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with cancer cachexia showed the drug was well tolerated and effective at attenuating loss of weight and lean body mass (LBM) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Peripheral muscle proteolysis, as it occurs in cancer cachexia, serves to mobilize amino acids required for the synthesis of liver and tumor protein. A phase-2 study involving the administration of antioxidants , pharmaconutritional support, progestin ( megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate ), and anti cyclooxygenase-2 drugs, showed efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer of different sites suffering cachexia. These data reinforce the use of the multitargeted therapies (nutritional supplementation, appetite stimulants, and physical activity regimen) in the treatment of cancer cachexia. In experimental models of cancer cachexia, BCAAs were able to induce a significant suppression in the loss of body weight, producing a significant increase in skeletal muscle wet weight[30] as well as in muscle performance and total daily activity. The conditionally essential amino acid glutamine has been used as a component of oral supplementation to reverse cachexia in patients with advanced cancer [23] or HIV/AIDS .


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How To Stay Strong and Prevent Muscle Loss


How To Stay Strong And Prevent Muscle Loss. Here, we explain just how long it takes to lose muscle mass and strength, and what to do stop it from happening. One study on rats found that just 48 hours after exercise, the body hits a lower steady-state rate of protein synthesis and stops building and repairing muscle . Age: Regardless of how often we make it to the gym, the natural process of aging can cause muscle loss. The rate of sarcopenia picks up as we age; by the time we get to age 50, a person can lose 0.4 pounds of muscle every year . Sleep: Because sleep debt decreases the rate at which the body builds and repairs muscle, skipping sleep to hit the weight room can neutralize results . How much and how fast muscles atrophy, or lose mass, depends on the muscle. General muscle strength is usually maintained for at least the first month of inactivity. There's no easy way to prevent loss of muscle mass and strength. While results are inconclusive as to whether eating more protein, specifically, can prevent muscle loss, a balanced diet helps ensure that muscles get the amino acids, vitamins, and minerals they need to build and stay strong . It's no cryogenic deep freeze, but generally, the sooner we start an exercise regimen, the sooner our muscles will make like Austin Powers and "freeze."


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Muscle wasting, weight loss, yervoy and steroids


Muscle wasting, weight loss, yervoy & steroids. My husband, Ron, has been struggling with weight loss, but more frighteningly, muscle loss. I've researched (Googled, more accurately) and found that the particular steroid he was prescribed, Dexamethasone (a flourinated steroid) is well-known for causing muscle wasting. That, while all steroids can cause muscle loss, this drug is the worst of the lot. Yervoy can cause weight loss. Cancer can cause muscle wasting and weight loss. We really didn't need anything else to contribute to the muscle wasting aspect! Block, he should be consuming around 2600 calories to help counteract the weight loss. Although he still has a weak voice,  and a bad limp because of Drop Foot/neuropathy, we are hopeful that he can at some point resume the Yervoy therapy.


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Weight Loss


Weight loss is common among people with cancer and is often the first noticeable sign of the disease. As many as 40% of people with cancer report unexplained weight loss at the time of diagnosis, and up to 80% of people with advanced cancer experience weight loss and cachexia, or wasting, which is the combination of weight loss and muscle mass loss. Weight loss and muscle wasting also often come with fatigue , weakness, loss of energy, and an inability to perform everyday tasks. Controlling cancer-related weight loss is important for your comfort and well-being. Consider asking your doctor about receiving food through a tube that goes directly to the stomach, which may help people with head and neck or esophageal cancers who are having difficulty chewing or difficulty swallowing . Megestrol acetate (Megace) is a progesterone hormone that can improve appetite, weight gain, and a person's sense of well-being. Steroid medications can increase appetite, improve a person's sense of well-being, and help with nausea, weakness, or pain. Other medications are being studied to help people with cancer improve their appetite and gain weight. Nutrition counseling may help people with cancer get essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals into their diet and maintain a healthy body weight. You can also find a dietitian through the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. These details can help you work with your health care team to find the best way to maintain your weight, or gain needed weight, during cancer treatment.


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Sarcopenia


From the time you are born to around the time you turn 30, your muscles grow larger and stronger. But at some point in your 30s, you begin to lose muscle mass and function, a condition known as age-related sarcopenia or sarcopenia with aging. Although there is no generally accepted test or specific level of muscle mass for sarcopenia diagnosis, any loss of muscle mass is of consequence, because loss of muscle means loss of strength and mobility. Sarcopenia typically accelerates around age 75 - although it may happen in people age 65 or 80 - and is a factor in the occurrence of frailty and the likelihood of falls and fractures in older adults. The primary treatment for sarcopenia is exercise. Specifically, resistance training or strength training - exercise that increases muscle strength and endurance with weights or resistance bands - has been shown to be useful for both the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia.


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Weight loss - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Weight loss. [1] [2] [3] [7] [8] [9] Poor nutrient utilization can lead to weight loss, and can be caused by fistulae in the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, drug-nutrient interaction, enzyme depletion and muscle atrophy. Unintentional weight loss can be the characteristic leading to diagnosis of diseases such as cancer [1] and type 1 diabetes . [7] Around 25% experience moderate to severe weight loss, and most others have some weight loss. [7] Greater weight loss is associated with poorer prognosis. People with HIV often experience weight loss, and it is associated with poorer outcomes. Medical treatment can directly or indirectly cause weight loss, impairing treatment effectiveness and recovery that can lead to further weight loss in a vicious cycle. Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result of efforts to improve fitness and health, or to change appearance through slimming. Weight loss in individuals who are overweight or obese can reduce health risks, [19] increase fitness, [20] and may delay the onset of diabetes . Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients. The healthiest weight loss regimen, therefore, is one that consists of a balanced diet and moderate physical activity.[ citation needed ] The least intrusive weight loss methods, and those most often recommended, are adjustments to eating patterns and increased physical activity, generally in the form of exercise. In order for weight loss to be permanent, changes in diet and lifestyle must be permanent as well.


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