Next, subjects will be randomly assigned to one of three 5-month treatments (Phase 3): diet and high-intensity exercise, diet and low-intensity exercise, or diet only. All treatment groups will experience the same total weekly caloric deficit (-2800 kcal/wk), but will derive this deficit by different reductions in dietary intake and exercise energy expenditure. The weekly caloric deficit will be accomplished as follows: 1) the diet alone group will reduce dietary intake by ~2800 kcal/week (~400 kcal/day); 2) both exercise groups will expend ~400 kcal/wk in exercise energy expenditure and will reduce dietary intake by ~2400 kcal/wk (~340 kcal/day) to achieve the 2800 kcal/wk deficit. The exercise will take place in an exercise facility at the Geriatric Research Center on the campus of the Wake Forest University/Baptist Medical Center. Blood pressure and heart rate will be measured and recorded before each exercise session and participants will warm-up by walking for 3-5 min at a slow pace. Women will use the treadmill to exercise at an intensity of 45-50% (low-intensity AEX) or 70-75% (high-intensity AEX) of VO 2max. Both groups will exercise 3 d/wk and duration of exercise will progress from 10-15 min the 1st week to 55 min by the end of the 6th week and thereafter for the low-intensity AEX group. The duration of exercise for the high-intensity AEX group will progress from 10-15 min the 1st week to 30 min by the end of the 6th week and thereafter. The diets will be composed of 50-60% carbohydrate, 15-20% protein, and 25-30% fat with adequate amounts of essential nutrients. The diet only group will be provided with an approximate 400 kcal/day energy deficit diet, while both exercise groups will be provided with an approximate 340 kcal/day energy deficit diet.
Exercise-induced weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal fat. And Balasekaran, Gavindasamy (2003) Exercise-induced weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal fat. Purpose: To investigate whether abdominal fat is reduced in response to substantial weight loss induced by exercise in young obese men. Fat free mass (FFM), fat mass, and percent body fat were determined from skinfold measurements. The significant reduction in WHR indicates a greater mobilization of abdominal fat and a preferential loss of fat from this region. Conclusions: Large exercise-induced weight loss is associated with a preferential reduction in abdominal fat and a corresponding maintenance of FFM. Such an effect on body composition should reduce disease risk and the eventual weight regain that typically follows diet-induced weight losses with obese subjects.
To lose fat in any one specific area of your body, you need to lose weight and body fat in general. The best way to lose a significant amount of weight is to eat less and exercise more. A few home remedies may help to slightly improve your weight loss results, however, as well as the amount of belly fat you lose. Spices That May Help With Fat Loss. A study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in 2006 found that components in cinnamon may help to improve body composition and decrease body fat. Fruits and vegetables, however, may be beneficial for this purpose, according to a study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2009, which found that the more fruits and vegetables people ate, the lower their risk was of weight gain. Choose the Right Types of Fat for Weight Loss. For example, a study published in the Archives of Latin American Nutrition in 2013 found that omega-3 fats helped with weight and fat loss. Switch to green tea instead of your regular beverage, and you may find it easier to lose that stubborn belly fat. An animal study published in the Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition in 2008 found that antioxidants called polyphenols in lemons may help decrease weight gains and the accumulation of body fat. A study published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise in 2003 found that weight loss from exercise preferentially reduces belly fat.
DECEMBER, 2007 - It is often thought that exercise reduces abdominal fat and/or visceral fat in a way that is independent of weight loss. It has only been recognized in the past decade or so that the visceral component of abdominal fat imparts the most serious health effects. A 1999 review looked at the available studies. The authors summarized by saying that better-quality studies that looked specifically at the impact of exercise on the components of abdominal fat were needed before any conclusions could be made.1. The researchers concluded that, by using new technologies that can quantify fat stores, there is limited evidence that exercise can lead to a loss of visceral and total abdominal fat without a change in weight or waist circumference. Using sophisticated measuring techniques, the researchers found no differences between the diet and diet plus exercise groups in weight lost, total fat lost or visceral fat lost.2. Based on the latest research, it appears that no definitive conclusions can be drawn as to whether or not exercise has an independent ability to reduce visceral fat stores. By using a comprehensive approach that includes food and activity plans, the reduction of visceral fat and the health improvements that have been shown to accompany reduced abdominal fat are maximized.
Training Tips to Get Flatter Abs. So what kind of fitness training should you do to get rid of belly fat? New York trainer Matt Griffin works at a gym where the clientele is mostly men. He says that getting a lean body requires a combination of cardiovascular training and lifting weights. “The mix of weight training and cardio keeps the body guessing and reacting to the stresses being put on it.” Both Griffin and Schober say that high intensity interval training (HIIT) is particularly effective for burning fat and targeting the gut. “Getting great abs is about more than just doing a bunch of sit ups.” He says that abdominal training should engage the whole body. “Core training that incorporates movement of the entire body is more relevant to everyday life,” he says. He specifically prefers Pilates and Gyrotonic training for men who want to get flatter abs. But Griffin and all of the experts emphasize the importance of a comprehensive program for losing weight and getting rid of belly fat. It’s not just about the diet or just about the gym. Take the time to talk to your doctor, and develop a lifelong plan of healthy eating and vigorous exercise to get lean and stay fit for life. Aim for a Healthy Weight. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk. "Body mass index, waist circumference, and risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective study among men and women." Obesity Research & Clinical Practice July 2010.
How to Calculate Percentage of Body Fat Loss. Before you can calculate your percentage of body fat loss, you need to know your original body fat percentage and you'll need to have lost enough weight to potentially affect your body fat percentage. Using an online, lean body mass calculator can give you an idea of the average amount of lean body mass, and thus body fat, for a person of your gender, weight, height and age. Calculating Percentage of Body Fat Loss. Of course, the easiest way to calculate percentage of body fat loss is to take your starting percentage of body fat and subtract your ending percentage of body fat, but not everyone has these measurements. If you have a starting body fat percentage, you can estimate how much body weight you'd need to lose to reach your desired body fat percentage, using the following formula: This means if your current body fat percentage is 30 percent and you weigh 160 pounds, you multiply 160 times 0.3 to figure out how much of your body weight is fat - in this case, 48 pounds. If you want to decrease your body fat percentage to 25 percent, you subtract 0.25 from 1 to get 0.75 - your desired lean mass percentage in decimal form. Since your starting weight is 160 pounds and your desired body weight for your target body fat percentage is 149 pounds, you'll need to lose 11 pounds of fat to reach your goal. If you lose weight solely through diet and don't do any strength training workouts, about 25 percent of whatever you lose is most likely from muscle, not body fat, which means you'd need to lose even more weight to lower your body fat percentage.
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Participants who were medically eligible for the study were next interviewed by the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) dietitian to discuss food preferences and to ascertain their willingness to comply with the dietary intervention. They also underwent a 7-d dietary run-in to assess their compatibility with the study menus and their compliance with picking up food 3 d/wk. Three women failed this run-in and were considered ineligible for the study. A total of 112 women met all study criteria and were randomly assigned (before baseline assessments) to 1 of the 3 interventions ( Figure 1 ) by random number generation. The goal of the dietary intervention was to elicit a similar energy deficit and amount of total weight loss between the 3 groups. Individual diets were developed by a registered dietitian (RD) and provided to each woman by the GCRC metabolic kitchen.
The mean ± SD value for pericardial fat before weight loss was 79.07 ± 32.90 cm3 (range = 34.04–152.74 cm3), with no difference among groups (P = 0.89). Changes in pericardial fat were inversely correlated with changes in V̇O 2max (r = −0.37, P = 0.05), but not after adjusting for intervention group and change in body weight. Weight loss is advocated for the improvement and prevention of many obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the beneficial effects are partly related to reductions in pericardial fat. Changes in pericardial fat, body weight, body composition, body fat distribution, and V̇O 2max with weight loss were examined using paired t-tests. Association of changes in V̇O 2max with changes in pericardial fat (A) and abdominal visceral fat (B) in all women combined. However, in our study of overweight and obese postmenopausal women randomized to one of three weight loss interventions for 20 wk, there were similar reductions in body weight and pericardial fat in all three groups, and reductions in body weight were not correlated with reductions in pericardial fat. Weight loss appears to have variable effects on the relative change in pericardial fat compared with changes in other obesity measures. In this regard, the results of this study are consistent with previous studies and extend the effects of weight loss on pericardial fat to women without severe obesity. In the previous diet- and exercise-induced weight loss studies, the percent change in pericardial fat was greater than that for the anthropometric measures but lower than the percent changes in body fat. In addition, we found that changes in pericardial fat with weight loss were positively associated with changes in lean mass and inversely associated with changes in abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio. These findings highlight the importance of body composition and body fat distribution as correlates of the change in pericardial fat with weight loss. Our secondary objective was to examine the association between weight loss–induced changes in pericardial fat and V̇O 2max. Although changes in pericardial fat and V̇O 2max with weight loss were significantly correlated in univariate analysis, after adjusting for intervention group and change in body weight, the association was no longer significant.
Changes in abdominal adipocyte size in the diet plus exercise groups were significantly different from that of the diet group. It has been reported that the fat-reducing effect of both diet and exercise is through a decrease in fat cell size. 23 Forty-nine women were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either a hypocaloric diet only (Diet), a diet plus low-intensity exercise (Diet+LE), or a diet plus high-intensity exercise (Diet+HE) intervention for a period of 20 weeks. 1.7% for the low-intensity exercise group, and 87.9. Moreover, adipocyte metabolic properties were not tested in this study, although such data would help clarify the mechanisms for changes in regional adipocyte size in response to diet and exercise. Future studies need to focus on the link between metabolic biomarkers and regional adipocyte size in response to diet and exercise training. The metabolic syndrome in obese postmenopausal women: relationship to body composition, visceral fat, and inflammation. Associations of general and abdominal obesity with multiple health outcomes in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Racial differences in adipocyte size and relationship to the metabolic syndrome in obese women. Loss of abdominal fat and metabolic response to exercise training in obese women. The effect of intensive endurance exercise training on body fat distribution in young and older men. Effects of the amount of exercise on body weight, body composition, and measures of central obesity: STRRIDE—a randomized controlled study. Methods for the determination of adipose cell size in man and animals. Effects of hypocaloric diet and exercise training on inflammation and adipocyte lipolysis in obese postmenopausal women.
Effects of aerobic exercise and obesity phenotype on abdominal fat reduction in response to weight loss. 1 Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. 4 Doctoral program in Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. Correspondence: Dr T Okura, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan. To test the effects on abdominal fat reduction of adding aerobic exercise training to a diet program and obesity phenotype in response to weight loss. Mean IF area), diet plus exercise (DE) with IF obesity, DA with abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) obesity (
Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of substantial weight loss induced by exercise alone on body composition and fat distribution in young obese male subjects undergoing BMT. Significant changes were observed in the measures of body fat distribution with weight loss. In addition, there were no associations between baseline WC and the change in WC with weight loss (r = 0.17, NS) or between initial WHR and change in WHR (r = 0.00, NS). This study is the first to examine the effect of a substantial weight loss induced by exercise alone on fat distribution and body composition in obese subjects. Comparison of the WC, the HC, and the WHR with regard to their relations with total body fat mass revealed that both circumference measures were associated with total fat mass at baseline and with the reductions in fat mass that took place with weight loss. Conversely, there was no association between the WHR and total body fat mass either at baseline or between fat loss and the change in WHR. This corresponded with a preferential 40% reduction in IA fat that correlated with the change in WC after weight loss (r = 0.33; P > 0.05) but not with the change in WHR. Another study, again with middle-aged, obese men with similar characteristics to the subjects in this study, reported that a diet and exercise-induced weight loss of 12 kg reduced WC by 12 cm (11%), HC by 7 cm (6%), and WHR by 0.05 (5%) ( 30 ). ( 27 ) compared the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on abdominal fat and reported that a 7.5-kg reduction in body weight whether induced by diet or exercise was associated with similar and substantial reductions in IA fat. In the present study, there was no relationship between an initial abundance of abdominal fat, measured as either WC or WHR, and success at weight loss.
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